Relativity Trail Copyrighted material. © relativitytrail.com Cite (Book): Internet Archives APA Book Luebeck, R. Relativity in Absolute Terms
diagramming special relativity in the absolute frame of reference.
Consider the following simple situation which all physicists
will agree upon:
Just as acceleration is not involved in the "paradox", niether is any force. Yet, without fail, examiners appeal to the experience of force associated with a change of inertial frames, as if some force could affect the transfer of a clock reading from one inertial frame to another. Another fatal mistake made by examiners of the "paradox" (a paradox strictly of their own making) is to apply Einstein's clock synchronization (identically space-time) to the "paradox". It is responsible for the notorious "jump in time". Without Einstein's clock synchronization, there is no spacetime. Einstein's clock synchronization is a convention. It is optional. All the measuring results of relativity can be deduced independent of Einstein's clock synchronization. Therefore, spacetime is optional. Spacetime is simply a geometrical representation of Einstein's clock synchronization. A person cannot travel along a world line, because there is no world line. A world line is simply a geometrical construct. A person can travel through space while his clock is ticking. That is all a person can do. A spacetime diagram is not an explanation for what has created the time differential between two reunited clocks. With or without Einstein's clock synchronization, there will be a time differential, and the party who changes frames to facilitate the reunion will be the one who ages the least. Recall that the time dilation equation is not linear. What has created the time differential? The rate at which one ages is dependent on ones speed relative to the speed of light. The total aging of a person is dependent on the combination of his speed and distance traveled in absolute terms. A simple discussion of the twins paradox of special relativity must incorporate the transfer of clock information from an "outgoing" astronaut to an "incoming" astronaut; otherwise acceleration would need to be involved, and acceleration is not involved in any kinematical effects of special relativity. The time differential between two reunited clocks is deduced through purely uniform linear motion considerations, as seen in Einstein's original paper on the subject, as well as in all subsequent derivations of the Lorentz transformations. The twins paradox (and special relativity) can be analyzed in the context of the absolute frame of reference, wherein the sum total of the universe constitutes an experimentally indiscernable rest state. Though experimentally indiscernable, such frame of reference shows, in an actual sense, what is generating the observational effects of special relativity. Photons, being massless, move at constant speed relative to the universe, and dictate time-keeping of every nature. (At the subatomic level, we also speak of virtual photon events, wherein communication occurs at light speed without any energy exchange.) (All processes -- chemical, biological, measuring apparatus functioning, human perception involving the eye and brain, the communication of force -- everything, is constrained by the speed of light. There is clock functioning at every level, dependent on light speed and the inherent delay at even the atomic level.) The time registered on a clock is dependent on the combination of speed relative to light speed and distance covered in relation to the universe. The time contraction formula is not linear. Thus, the party that changes inertial frames will be the party whose clock registers the least time over the course of a "round trip". Note that time-keeping, distance and speed are interminably bound in one equation. Thus, to acknowledge various states of actual motion relative to the universe (as opposed to merely observed differences) is to acknowledge various states of actual clock rates (as opposed to merely observed differences) and various states of actual lengths of rigid bodies (as opposed to merely observed differences). ====================================================== The animations below illustrate two basic possibilities for completing a round trip between two parties. They show the symmetry in time differentials, and corollary to that, the impossibility of anyone determining their true motion status relative to the universe. For maximum clarity, the trips themselves involve just a light second or two in distance, and all parties make use of photon clocks which are a whopping 1/2 light second in width. The photon clocks tell the story of time contraction. In the twins paradox animation below, an astronaut and a space station occupant start their clocks as the astronaut passes by. A second, incoming, astronaut starts his clock as he passes by the first astronaut. The incoming astronaut and the space station occupant stop their clocks as the incoming astronaut passes by the space station. In the twin paradox animation below, an astronaut and a space station occupant start their clocks as the astronaut passes by. A second, also outbound, astronaut starts his clock as he passes by the space station. This second astronaut chases down the first astronaut. As the first astronaut is caught, both astronauts stop their clocks. The time contraction formula is easily obtained from the above diagrams. For instance, in the first diagram (animation), the clock at rest with the universe ticks off one cycle while the traveling clock ticks off .8 of a cycle. A simple application of the Phythagorean Theorem yields: t' = t * sqr rt of ( 1 - V^2 ) where t' is the time recorded by the traveler, t is universal time (full clock rate, since at rest with the universe), and v is the speed of the traveler. Keep in mind that the traveler, moving at .6 light second per second of universal time, went a distance, in absolute terms, of .6 light second. A photon went the same distance in the station's clock as it did in the traveler's clock, namely, 1 light second. Thus, .8 = 1 * sqr rt of ( 1 - .6^2) = 1 * sqr rt of ( 1 - .36) = 1 * sqr rt of ( .64 ) = .8 (There is no need to use c (light speed) in the equation, since we are using units of light seconds. Light travels one light second in one second.) See the book
That two reunited clocks show a disparity in their recorded time is
proof that the two clocks experienced actual differing clock rates
while in differing states of uniform linear motion. If the disparity
one can see at the same place moment is a reality, then so too is the
notion of actual differing clock rates a reality. Those two realities
are inseparable. They are one and the same reality.
Postulate 1: The speed of light is constant and is the maximum speed for any phenomena, including the transmission of positioning information. Basis: Experiments towards the end of the nineteenth century pointed towards a transformational relationship between matter and energy (radioactivity experiments). Einstein's interpretation of Max Planck's solutions for discreet energy levels introduced the notion of light existing as a massless photon. Being massless, the photon would necessarily possess constant and maximum speed. Postulate 2: Stability (synchronization) is required at the base of our structures (specifically atomic functioning). Basis: This simply parallels the Galilean Principle of Relativity. All of Einstein's results stem from these two postulates. These two postulates may look similar to Einstein's postulates, but are not his postulates. =========================================================
Accepting the fact that there is an interconnectedness between all
particles in the universe, just as we see in general relativity,
is the key to understanding that clock rates and lengths of rigid
bodies vary in an absolute (or universal) sense. The complexity of
the universe insures that all physical phenomena (including relativistic
effects) have a smoothness, a high degree of predictability, a virtual
absoluteness of character.
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